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How Vaccines Work : What is Immunity? : When disease germs enter your body, they start to reproduce. Your immune system recognizes these germs as foreign invaders and responds by making proteins called antibodies. These antibodies first job is to help destroy the germs that are making you sick. They cant act fast enough to prevent you from becoming sick, but by eliminating the attacking germs, antibodies help you to get well. The antibodies second job is to protect you from future infections. They remain in your bloodstream, and if the same germs ever try to infect you again even after many years they will come to your defense. Only now that they are experienced at fighting these particular germs, they can destroy them before they have a chance to make you sick. This is immunity. It is why most people get diseases like measles or chickenpox only once, even though they might be exposed many times during their lifetime. Vaccines to the Rescue : Vaccines offer a solution to this problem. They help you develop immunity without getting sick first. Vaccines are made from the same germs (or parts of them) that cause disease; for example, polio vaccine is made from polio virus. But the germs in vaccines are either killed or weakened so they wont make you sick. Vaccines containing these weakened or killed germs are introduced into your body, usually by injection. Your immune system reacts to the vaccine in a similar way that it would if it were being invaded by the disease by making antibodies. The antibodies destroy the vaccine germs just as they would the disease germs like a training exercise. Then they stay in your body, giving you immunity. If you are ever exposed to the real disease, the antibodies are there to protect you. Vaccines Are Very Safe : The United States' long-standing vaccine safety system ensures that vaccines are as safe as possible. In fact, currently, the United States has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in its history. Safety monitoring begins with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The agency ensures the safety, effectiveness, and availability of vaccines for the United States. Before a vaccine is approved by the FDA for use by the public, results of studies on safety and effectiveness of the vaccine are evaluated by highly trained FDA scientists and doctors. FDA also inspects the sites where vaccines are made to make sure they follow strict manufacturing guidelines. Although most common side effects of a vaccine are identified in studies before the vaccine is licensed, rare adverse events may not be detected in these studies. Therefore, the U.S. vaccine safety system continuously monitors for possible side effects after a vaccine is licensed. When millions of people receive a vaccine, less common side effects that were not identified earlier may be detected. If a link is found between a possible side effect and a vaccine, public health officials take appropriate action. First, additional studies will be quickly conducted to determine if there is an association between the vaccine and the side effect. If additional studies indicate a true association between the vaccine and the side effect, then public health experts will weigh the benefits of the vaccine against its risks to determine if recommendations for using the vaccine should change. Monitoring Vaccine Safety - Why is it important to monitor vaccine safety? : Vaccines are held to the highest standard of safety. The United States currently has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in history. Years of testing are required before a vaccine can be licensed. Once in use, vaccines are continually monitored for safety and efficacy. Vaccines, like any medication, can cause adverse events. However, a decision not to immunize a child also involves risk. It is a decision to put the child and others who come into contact with him or her at risk of contracting a disease that could be dangerous or deadly. Vaccine Side Effects : Like any medication, vaccines, can cause side effects. The most common side effects are mild. On the other hand, many vaccine-preventable disease symptoms can be serious, or even deadly. Even though many of these diseases are rare in this country, they still occur around the world and can be brought into the United States, putting unvaccinated children at risk. The side effects associated with getting vaccines are almost always mild (such as redness and swelling where the shot was given) and go away within a few days. If your child experiences a reaction at the injection site, you can use a cool, wet cloth to reduce redness, soreness, and swelling. Serious side effects following vaccination, such as severe allergic reaction, are very rare and doctors and clinic staff are trained to deal with them. Pay extra attention to your child for a few days after vaccination. If you see something that concerns you, call your childs doctor.